Works in the Exhibition


Industrial Era


William Louis Sonntag (1822-1900), Blue Ridge Wilderness, c. 1859

John Henry Hill (American, 1839-1922)

John Henry Hill (1839-1922), Roadway Near Nyack Turnpike, 1880

1859 - Edwin L. Drake strikes oil in Titusville, PA

1862 - Homestead Act encourages settlement of US western territory

1864 - President Lincoln signs bill to protect Yosemite Valley

1869 - Transcontinental railroad links US east and west coasts

Thomas Pollock Anshutz (American, 1851-1912)

Thomas Pollock Anshutz (1851-1912) Untitled [Mountain Landscape with Railroad Tracks], c. 1885-1890

Wilson Henry Irvine (American, 1869-1936)

Wilson Henry Irvine (1869-1936), Old New England

1870 - John D. Rockefeller incorporates Standard Oil Company; monopolizes oil industry

1875 - Andrew Carnegie’s Edgar Thomson Works begins mass production of steel in Braddock, PA

1879 - Thomas Edison demonstrates incandescent light in Menlo Park, NJ

Truman Ward Ingersoll (American, 1862-1922)

Truman Ward Ingersoll (1862-1922), Devil’s Punch Bowl #129, 1885-1890

1882 - First hydroelectric power plant put into operation in Appleton, WI

1891 - Forest Reserve Act passed


Late Progressive Era

Ernest Lawson

Ernest Lawson (1873-1939), Low Tide, c. 1898


Chauncy Foster Ryder (1868-1949), Cutting the Pines

1901 - Spindletop oil gusher shifts center of US oil industry from Pennsylvania to Texas

1903 - President Theodore Roosevelt creates first National Bird Preserve (beginning of Wildlife Refuge system)

1908 - Ford Model T goes into production, democratizing automobile ownership

1914 - First scheduled commercial airline flight between St. Petersburg and Tampa, FL


Ralph M. Pearson (1883-1958), Asphalters, from the series Chicago, Toilers of the City, c. 1911


Joseph Pennell (1857-1926), Coal Mine, Longport, 1909

1916 - National Park Service established


Emergence of Modern America


Lyonel Feininger (1871-1956), Volcano, 1921


George L. Noyes (1864-1951), Cornfield

1921 - Leaded gasoline invented

1928 - Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) developed as non-toxic refrigerant; later found to damage stratospheric ozone

1933 - Civilian Conservation Corps formed

1939 - Insecticidal properties of DDT identified; first banned in 1970

1942 - Manhattan Project launched to build nuclear weapon


Howard Norton Cook (1901-1980), Mill Valley, Norwich, Connecticut, 1930


Reginald Marsh (1889-1954), George Washington Bridge (Palisades), 1936

1945 - US detonates two nuclear weapons over Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ending WWII

Ansel Adams (1902-1984), Winter Sunrise, Sierra Nevada from Lone Pine California, 1944


Cold War Era


George Bunker (1923-1991), Landscape, 1973


Ana Mendieta (1948-1985), Silueta Works in Mexico, 1977

1956 - President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs Federal Aid Highway Act, creating 41,000-mile interstate highway system

1958 - First commercial nuclear power plant in US opened in Shippingport, PA

1962 - Publication of “Silent Spring” by Rachel Carson

1963 - Clean Air Act is first federal legislation regarding air pollution control; Congress ratifies Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, ending nuclear weapons testing

"Gas Line, from the portfolio of CITY-SCAPES by Ron Kleemann

Ron Kleemann (1937-2014), Gas Line, from CITY-SCAPES, 1979


Nelson Holbrook White (b. 1932), Untitled [Landscape with Power lines], 1975-1979

1969 - Oil spill off coast of Santa Barbara, CA and a fire on Cuyahoga River in Ohio increase urgency of demands for regulation of industry to protect the environment

1970 - President Richard Nixon signs National Environmental Policy Act Jan 1; Nationwide Earth Day celebration April 22; Environmental Protection Agency begins operation Dec 2

1972 - United Nations Conference on the Human Environment convenes in Stockholm

1973 - Endangered Species Act passes Congress; Arab Oil Embargo sparks a fuel shortage in US

1979 - Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, PA partially melts down


The Eighties


Larry Silver (b. 1934), Bike Riding, Saugatuck River, Westport, Connecticut, 1981


Marilyn Bridges (b. 1948), Journey, Monument Valley, Arizona/Utah, 1983

1980 - “Superfund” legislation directs EPA to clean up abandoned toxic waste dumps

1982 - Term “Environmental racism” first used in Warren County, NC battle over toxic waste dump forced on poor, Black community

1984 - Pesticide factory accident in Bhopal, India kills more than 20,000 people

1985 - Discovery of ozone hole over Antarctica


David Wojnarowicz (1954-1992), Untitled (Buffalo), 1988


Robert Aller (b. 1947), Waste Pool, Marble Quarry, Barre, VT, 1989

1986 - Chernobyl nuclear reactor explodes in Ukraine

1987 - Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer adopted by more than 100 countries

1988 - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change established to investigate whether human activity is major contributor to global warming

1989 - Exxon Valdez oil tanker runs aground in Alaska, spilling 11 million gallons


The Nineties


Peter Waite (b. 1950), Sower (Kew Gardens), 1991


Tom Baril (b. 1952), Verrazzano Narrows, 1993

1990 - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 strengthen rules to reduce “acid rain” and introduce cap-and-trade scheme for sulfur dioxide emissions

1992 - Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiated by world leaders in Rio de Janeiro during Earth Summit sponsored by United Nations

1994 - FDA allows sale of first genetically modified whole food intended for public consumption


Nancy Goldring (b. 1945), Tunnel Visions: Fresco, 1995


Britta Jaschinski (b. 1965), Polar Bear; Ursus Maritimus Bremerhaven, 1993


Craig Varjabedian (b. 1957), La Conquistadora at the Trinity Nuclear Test Site Near Socorro, New Mexico, 1996


The New Millennium


Lori Nix (b. 1969), Ice Storm, from the series Accidentally Kansas, 1999


Lori Nix (b. 1969), Tornado, from the series Accidentally Kansas, 1999

1997 - Kyoto Protocol calls for reducing emissions that contribute to global warming; adopted by US and 121 other nations but not ratified by US Congress

1999 - Anti-globalization protestors disrupt meeting of World Trade Organization in Seattle, WA

2000 - US population exceeds 281 million


Todd Hido (b. 1968), Untitled #2368 (Levvittown, NY), 2000


James Welling (b. 1951), Cornfield, Facing East, Northeast, NY, 2001

2002 - USDA creates National Organic Program to regulate organic food production

2005 - Energy Policy Act of 2005 exempts fracking from EPA regulation

2008 - Wilkins Ice Shelf collapses in Antarctica; polar bear listed as a threatened species

2010 - Deepwater Horizon oil spill results in leak of over 200 million gallons of crude oil in Gulf of Mexico over five months


James Welling (b. 1951), Soil, South Glastonbury, CT, 2002


Beate Gütschow (b. 1970), LS #14, 2003